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1. Richard Courchesne presents research about households relying on over-the-air antenna television for information, 12/6/2010.

Richard Courchesne presents research about households relying on over-the-air antenna television for information, 12/6/2010.

THE DAY STATIC DIED AND LEARNING BEGAN: Might digital antenna television become the cure to America’s failing education system? by Richard Courchesne MC5308 – Seminar in Advertising & Public Relations Dr. Jinbong Choi Texas State University – San Marcos November 22nd 2010 2010 Texas State University School of Journalism & Mass Communication, Fall 2010. Introduction: The following is a sociological experiment of the effective influence of broadcast television sub-channel communication: O + K.2 [CPM= GRP x 1000/aHH + s] = n (participant HH). Knowledge is power; the power of knowing how things work, and how to work them, is power at work. Humans are creatures of routine habits, mostly seeking the simplest means of accomplishing things while using the least amount of energy. Society’s lessons learned by those who grew-up with TV: Television is the greatest persuader, then and now. People want what’s seen on TV, the manufactured desires of ease, that causes people to drive rather than walk, Google rather than searching through an alphabetical directory, microwave rather than bake, and use an electronic calculator rather than a pencil. What’s a phonebook used for, anyhow? When people want to learn about something, they ask someone to “show them, or teach them how,” or learn from watching a television set. People prefer to learn any other way, than reading the words of written manuals with time-consuming boring in-depth instructions or directions. Relaxing by reading a good book is no longer the culturally favored leisure practiced by many in American society, today. Some researchers believe this phenomenon is a byproduct of an American school system that focuses on the “right answer, and pleasing authority figures,” or are media creating behavioral-engineered responses of human desire conjured-up by spin-masters hell bent of selling products not needed (Choi, 2010; Goldsworthy & Morris, 2008; Huffington, 2010; Pink, 2010; Wadsworth, 1998)? If television truly influences behavior, then allow it to help educate society on demand. Purpose of study: The purpose of this qualitative and quantitative study is to identify the efficiency and effectiveness of advertising on sub-channel broadcast television stations in San Antonio, Texas area of dominant influence (ADI), by performing an analysis with valid empirical data and qualitative interviews approach to an informal research methodology in testing a hypothesis (Stacks, 2002): HQ: If a grocery provider “O” and a single broadcast station, “K.2,” (limitations) were to offer cardholders of redeemable government food stamps program (the dependent variables), special discount offers exclusively for ‘sub-canal’ watchers – “aHH + s,” (stimulus) who saw the ads watching a single sub-channel during a 60-day period (latency), and called-in or logged-into website (reaction) with special word (trigger) to receive a free magnetic discount coupon tracking card (incentive) from the broadcast TV station. This experiment is testing the effectiveness of promotional communication between a station and merchant to an audience and consumer in order to determine a count that could be calculated into an estimate cost per thousand (CPM), for the sub-channel “K.2.” Note: Possible collateral effect may cause station branding to occur. Therefore, O + K.2 [CPM= GRP x 1000/aHH + s] = n (participant HH). Research Questions: RQ1: Does advertising or promoting a product on a broadcast OTA sub-channels prove to have a better cost per thousand (CPM), and greater value to a social-economic minded-audiences who rely on TV to keep informed, during the aftermath of “The Great Recession of 2008?” RQ2: Is the present national economic status causing households to abandon pay TV to seek alternative sources for television programming acquisition? Is American households tuning-in to over-the-air OTA television signal (antenna), or watching streaming Internet TV (broadband), or capturing smart-phone downloads (podcast)? RQ3: Has the influence of the Internet help change viewers perspective about conducting business using digital television? What is the future of OTA broadcast sub-channels, and fulfilling its promises from the past? Methodology of quasi-experimental disposition. Phase I, Area of study: It is important to understand the unique characteristics of the demographics of the areas of dominant influence (ADI) selected for this experiment. San Antonio, Texas is a unique market because its inhabitants consist of the fasting growing minority in the country with the highest degree of spending power (U.S. Census, 2010). Hispanic-Latinos are the majority in the San Antonio ADI making up 53.79% of its population. Hispanic-Latino households consist of 16% of the nation’s population, in the other two selected ADI’s, Seattle-Tacoma’s Hispanic-Latino citizens are 7.76% of its populace, and the Austin ADI reports 29.23% of its households being of Hispanic-Latino decent (SRDS Media Solutions, 2009; U.S. Census, 2010). Therefore, the San Antonio ADI provides a naturally unique ethnicity dependent variable for the center of the area of study, which is not realized by any other U.S. metropolis, and its conveniently location for the researcher. Reportedly, the American Hispanic-Latinos are the fastest growing minority adding 3% each year to the national average, and are attributed with over a trillion-dollars of combined annual spending power (Hinojosa, 2010; Pew Hispanic Research, 2010). In a NPR radio report, Guy Garcia, a media consultant for Mentamentrix says that Univision, the largest Spanish-speaking network has overtaken English networks in the primary 18-49 demographic categories. “Univision is moving beyond bilingual, bicultural into a contextual identify” for the Hispanic-Latino audience, says Garcia (Garcia, 2010). The Hispanic-Latino market is desperately in need of research, being the smallest group without the means (credit rating), or operational knowledge (education) to gain access the Internet, information about this minority group is scarce (Najera, 2010). Without Internet access, the Hispanic-Latino household cannot easily provide comments or feedback about products or services, they relatively speaking, having no voice (Huffington, 2009; Najera, 2010; Subervi, 2008). Methodology – Phase II, Sample group of study: This study is quasi-experimental research using a qualitative & quantitative methodology for analysis by identifying the independent variables as nearly the most current empirical demographic information available concerning the ADI of Seattle-Tacoma, Washington, San Antonio and Austin, Texas. Dependent variables include the number of digital converter boxes redeemed, and the volume of Hispanic-Latino ethnicity in each ADI. SRDS Media Solutions reports San Antonio, Texas Market Profiles Report of Lifestyle Ranking Index Category of Electronics & Computer indicates price is an issue for most households in the San Antonio ADI in purchasing “Hi-Tech” equipment, and accordingly the Internet is not the family’s primary entertainment source, even though nearly two-thirds of households own a PC (SRDS, 2009). During a radio interview with host Maria Hinojosa on the National Public Radio program Latino USA, Lolda Rosario, the director of the Multicultural Marketing Program at De Paul University, reports that the Hispanic-Latino market “is very young” and “very tech savvy,” while the older generations tend to avoid technology they cannot or do not understand. Rosario says many marketing strategies have tried to attract Latino dollars, but “too many strategies show no consistency,” and therefore fail to establish relevant integrity with its target audience (Hinojosa, 2010; Subervi, 2008). At the 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing System Proceeding of the 27th international conference Louis Barkuus states that “Television is increasingly viewed through computers in the form of downloaded or steamed content, yet computer based television consumption has received little attention” (Barkuus, 2009). In San Antonio, this trend is less obvious due to lack of personal Internet access. Barkuus, research study found that the uses and practices of subjects who have a higher than normal degree of technology knowledge and Internet access provided at school (students), download or stream “their television consumption through the Internet“ because they have the means. While nearly half the households in the San Antonio ADI may desire and “love to buy new gadgets and appliances,” only a quarter of them are early adopters with the means to be the “first to have new electronic equipment” (Barkuus, 2009; SRDS, 2009). The National Telecommunications and Information Administration Customer Service department received 51.7 million toll-free telephone calls requesting approval to receive a voucher to participate in the digital TV converter box coupon program. Out of the nearly 52 million calls, 35 million coupons were approved, a successful campaign of phenomenal response with a 54.4% redemption rate. Fourteen point seven million calls requested the information in Spanish or were part of the 7.5 million group who talked with a live representative agent (Locke, 2009). A New York Times article headline on June 13th 2009, the day after the ‘switch-over,’ reads “Changeover of Digital TV Off to a Smooth Start.” The report says that 112 million households out of the 114.5 million who rely on antenna television were prepared for the final switchover. This appears evident by the small number of phone calls television stations received after the end of analog TV and the beginning of the digital age (Locke, 2009). The Seattle-Tacoma market represents an average American city, and the Austin ADI was selected because of similar population size and its location in Texas. Methodology – Phase III, Identifying the variables: The U.S. Census Bureau reports that 76% of the 9.1 million American-Hispanic children living in one of ten counties in Texas speak Spanish at home (U.S. Census, 2010). A Magnaglobal report indicates 60% of households are using television for background noise, 20% are genre-driven, and the remaining 20% are watching appointment TV. The ‘genre-driven’ audience refers to household viewers who are fond of viewing television, but are indifferent about scheduling a routine program time (Magnaglobal, 2010). In a national November 19th through 21st 1993 Gallup poll, entitled “Survey of the future functions of television;” movies on demand (21.99%) and television shows at your convenience (17.67%) were of the highest interest to households, while banking through TV (7.67%), buying groceries (5.36%), playing games (3%), and buying expensive items (1.1%) ranked in the bottom percentile (Gallup Brain, 1993). Today’s digital television stations have many of the capabilities, but have not offered these functions to its viewers as of date. This study is suggesting targeting a viewing audience consists of bilingual households of a lower social-economic stratification; this action may provide an opportunity for grocery providers to target an audience whose primary media source of communication is in over-the-air (OTA) antenna television. Broadcast stations could test this theory by offer magnetic tracking discount cards rewarding viewers of sub-channel programming who use monthly guaranteed food stamp funds with great savings . The Market Profile of Food & Beverages Lifestyles of households in the San Antonio ADI reports a significant number of people “often snack between meals” and are “swayed by coupons” to purchase “easy to prepare” food “regardless of calories” (SRDS, 2009). Discounts could be focused on products that correspond to this profile. Methodology – Phase IV, Content Analysis: According to the Nielsen Company and KSAT-TV general sales manager and research team, the San Antonio, Texas market television consists of 844,910 households, 11.8% (99,699.38) or nearly 100,000 households are using over-the-air (OTA) antenna to receive free-HDTV and SD programming while nearly two-thirds of the households own a personal computer (SRDS, 2009; Schmidt & Carnezale, 2010). Households using an OTA outdoor amplified antenna are also able to receive additional programming, not presently seen on cable, satellite, or Internet. This programming is narrowcasting to a specific audience on local sub-channels using the point two, three, four and five of digital television (DTV) assigned frequency (Schmidt et al, 2010). There are ten (10) primary DTV stations and sixteen (16) sub-channels in the San Antonio area of dominant influence (ADI). As far as San Antonio lifestyles regarding finances, most households “know nothing about investing” and “prefer to pay cash” for the things they buy. While there are slightly more females in San Antonio ADI than males, “family and faith” are the two primary influences in most households, and everyone is looking for a bargain. The average family households income is $68,355 earned mostly by white-collar workers who travel 15 to 29 minutes to work (SRDS, 2009). Results of the analysis: The following is a disquisition of the demographic, psychographic, lifestyles of households in the San Antonio area of dominant influence (ADI), determining specific characteristics related to the social-economic nomenclature of a target audience and specific merchant product requiring the use of over-the-air (OTA) antenna to receive television signals. Research data was gathered from the International Journal of Digital Television, CQ Researcher, The AWA Journal, Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Proceedings, The Toronto Star, National Telecommunications and Information Administration, SRDS Media Solutions (including The Nielsen Company, Experian Marketing Solutions, Inc., and PRIZM), The U.S. Census Bureau, and the Television Digest with Consumer Electronics. Interviews were conducted with General sales managers and research directors from the local television stations to gather data for the qualitative portion of the study. Summary of research: Granted, most products are tools designed to save time, making living simpler, and paralyzing people. Where do the perspective consumers learn about places to go, to get the products they see, and obtain service or repair the things they have? Media. But, which ones, there are many: Newspaper, magazines, radio, television, cable, or the Internet? It’s a common fact that every household in America has at least one television in the house and a radio in the car, while not everyone has the convenience of Internet access (SRDS, 2009). Since many households in the ADI cut coupons for saving in groceries, the ‘Sub-channel coupon magnetic card‘ project can automate that task. Consumers benefit saving, grocers benefit with sales, and manufacturers benefit with tracking information. Internet TV is an independent variable based on the degree of video programming watched online. “As of the end of the second quarter of 2010, approximately 82.9 million households were online,” which calculates to 49% of TV households (Magnaglobal, 2010). Conclusion of study: RQ1: Does advertising or promoting a product on a broadcast OTA sub-channels prove to have a better cost per thousand (CPM), and greater value to a social-economic minded-audiences who rely on TV to keep informed, during the aftermath of “The Great Recession of 2008?” Answer: Using Media Math’s formula based on the cost of commercial spot being $25 divided by one-eight (1/8) of the OTA antenna audience in the San Antonio ADI, approximately 12,500 households, the CPM is two dollars (Media Math, 2010). In the San Antonio ADI cable companies (Time-Warner and Grande including AT&T U-verse) make up 60% of the viewing audience with 506,946 households. Satellite television viewers using Dish network or Direct TV is equal 28.4% percent, or 239,954.44 households in the market ADI. The combine total number of households paying to use an Alternative Digital System (ADS) is 88.2% of the market, or 745,210.62 households. OTA antenna viewers make up 11.8% of the market representing 99,699.38 households (SRDS, 2010). Just as in the past when “Amplitude Modulated (AM) radio was still an important entertainment medium. AM radio reception was easily accessible to anyone,” so is OTA television (Thomas, 2008). “The days when antennas dotted the skyline of middle-class suburbia are gone forever, with cable and satellite dishes fulfilling the desires of an increasingly sophisticated television audience that will no longer settle merely for formulaic sitcoms, once-nightly national news and Wide World of Sports on Saturday afternoons (Kulig, 1997). This however, does not mean OTA television is dead, on the other hand it’s a feasible market with specific characteristics related to specific audiences. It may be a smaller target, but the broadcaster’s aim is much closer. Depending on your location in the GTA (General Transmission Area) , there are up to 25 channels of over-the-air uncompressed HDTV. Not all channels currently offered on cable or satellite is available, but the major broadcast networks are represented. The same programming that is on the standard channel is on the HDTV channel, often in high definition.” “There's a secret in the air above the GTA. HDTV is being broadcast right now. Neither cable nor satellite is needed, just an amplified UHF antenna and a high-definition television with a digital tuner. And the best part: It's free (Elston, 2008). Are there more and more households cutting cable off to watch free HDTV with an outdoor antenna? RQ2: Is the present national economic status causing households to abandon pay TV to seek alternative sources for television programming acquisition? Is American households tuning-in to over-the-air OTA television signal (antenna), or watching streaming Internet TV (broadband), or capturing smart-phone downloads (podcast)? Answer: Surprising, as it may seem, there remains a group of viewers committed to the antenna. “Attribute the phenomenon to nostalgia, stubbornness or a philosophical opposition to anything high tech, but those who work in the antenna installation field say business has been improving of late” (Kulig, 1997). Of course the cost of tuning-into digital television is an outdoor antenna and $0 per month. The average cable/satellite television subscription cost households approximately $50 per month. Cable Company’s subscriptions have been declining but according to Time-Warner Chief Operations Officer (COO) Landel Hobbs, he says, “the company doesn’t see any evidence of people dropping cable in favor of the Internet,” because, “the biggest subscriber losses” are “among people who don’t have cable broadband services.” Craig Moffett, an analysis for Sanford Bernstein, says “poor people have an excellent motive to cut cable and simple replace it with an antenna, or nothing at all.” Time-Warner has lost 155,000 subscribers during the 2010 July to September quarter, “compared to the 64,000 a year ago” (Svensson, 2010; Wright, 2010). According to Nielsen National Three Screen Report of the 1st Quarter of 2010, there are 286 million monthly viewers watching TV in the home (+.06%) for 158 hours and 25 minutes (+1.3%); 135 million viewers, mostly adults 18 to 49 years of age are watching Online video for 3 hours and 10 minutes (+3.3%), and 20.3 million viewers, who are mostly teens 12 to 17, are watching 3 hours and 37 minutes of downloaded video on a mobile phone (+51.2). “Consumers are adding video consumption platforms and not replacing them” (Nielsen, 2010). RQ3: Has the influence of the Internet help change viewers perspective about conducting business using digital television? What is the future of OTA broadcast sub-channels, and fulfilling its promises from the past? Answer: “We find that users personalize their viewing but that TV is still a richly social experience - not as communal watching, but instead through communication around television programs. We explore new possibilities for technology-based interaction around television” (Barkhuus, 2009). On June 2009 America made the switch from analog to digital television, the day static died, there were very few households loss in the transition (Locke, 2009). The National 1993 Gallup poll surveyed 376 participants (sample group) between November 19th and the 21st regarding questions about the future functions of television. This survey was taken during the introduction of ‘America On-line’ and pre-Windows 95 graphic user interface (GUI). Many of the promises made in the 1993 Gallup poll have not been honored. Results of the 1993 National Gallop poll question ask about a future functions of televisions which was offering households to “buy expensive items” using the TV is compared to the 2009 survey question that “Price is not an issue for Hi-Tech” found in the 2009 Media Solutions Lifestyle Category of Electronics & Computers Market Profile Report (SRDS, 2009). While some markets are willing to purchase high-dollar items over the Internet, DTV station don’t seem interested in targeting that market. According to the survey future digital stations were offering viewers movies on demand in 1993, however, today Netflix and pay TV offer this function at a premium price. Perhaps DTV stations, have not developed a scrambling method to block non-payers from receiving a signal, or the infrastructure is too expensive and difficult to maintain. With the advent of TiVo, DVD recorders and DVR, households can watch their favorite television shows at their own convenience. Yet another function has been taken over by a third-party operator, and not by a DTV station. Banking through TV is not offered today, but many of today’s Internet users conduct commerce and bank online, surely an adaptation that could easily be offered by DTV stations, but it isn’t. Q3: Buying groceries or Q2: playing games through the TV functions has also been replaced by online merchants who can fill grocery lists and deliver perishable foods products, instantly without any spoilage. For the gamers there are hundreds of first-person scenarios users can join into a networks with hundreds of game players the on the Internet simultaneously (Gallup Brain, 1993; SRDS, 2009). Limitations of the study: The greatest limitation of this study is persuading a broadcast digital station to invest and participate and in the proposed ‘Sub-channel coupon magnetic card test’ to determine a seemingly accurate account of households using OTA antenna television in the ADI of study. Other limitations include the relatively short amount of time, framing for research, no survey information about sales of converter boxes from 2007 to 2010 in San Antonio ADI, unobtainable. David Walker spoke of a ‘Digital spectrum,’ methodology in measuring over-the-air antenna households, but did not receive the data within the latency of this research (Walker & Guzman, 2010). The researcher requesting information about the count of digital-converter boxes redeemed at their grocery chain in the San Antonio ADI, H.E.B. Public Relations department says because their company is a privately owned company, they were not able to disclose sales information. Future Research & Recommendations: It is the recommendation of this researcher to propose a Federal feasibility study for public interest in a government funded pilot program to educate America using bilingual-education broadcast television stations. David Pink says it worries him that students “have been so indoctrinated into a school system that is focused on the right answer, and pleasing authority figures, that they have not allowed their intrinsic motivation to blossom” (Pink, 2010), thereby killing innovation and independent thought. According to Adrianna Huffington’s book Third World America, “If America’s school system was a horse, it would be shot,” but she doesn’t offer a viable solution, other than getting rid of bad teachers (Huffington, 2010). Academia wants to blame parenting, parents want to blame teachers, and everyone wants to blame TV. But, TV may be the answer to America’s education problems. School administrators want students to attend 2nd period , and students want to socialize rather than learn about anything. There are of course the exceptions to the rule, the overachievers, the teacher’s pet, and nerds. KFED-DTV network can educate those who cannot attend classes and the community. Viewers can watch or record daily classroom lectures. Those with Internet access can download an app to view practice exercise and homework assignment paperwork on a mobile device. TV stations across the U.S. started cutting their analog signals Friday June 12, 2009, ending a 60-year run for the technology and likely stranding more than 1 million unprepared homes without TV service. The Federal Communications Commission put 4,000 operators on standby for calls from confused viewers, and set up demonstration centers in several cities (Amendola, 2009). A $150 million literacy & educational federal grant is suggested to fund the project for 5 years, housing in operations in renovated buildings & side-mounting antennas. The planned KFED-DTV network daily programming transmissions begin at 600am SDT until 10:00pm Monday through Friday, continuously year round. Students & underwriters submit recordings of thirty-minute productions of Texas certified teacher follow standard TEAC curriculum. KFED network broadcasting day begins at 6am Monday thru Friday until 6pm. Each of the five (5) standard definition (SD) channels could be dedicated to a specified subject. In other words, channel .1 might teach English from 1st grade to 12th. Programming will stagger with the first half-hour in English and the second half-hour in Spanish. English will be taught in Spanish. The second sub-channel could teach Math, the third the Humanities, and so forth. Each KFED DTV stations can lease and move into abandoned buildings in the heart of the 15 selected areas of dominant influence (ADI) cities & towns for the pilot program once it receives a retrofit to operate a broadcast television station. Antennas (including microwave link) can be side mounted to existing television towers and the transmitter shack can be constructed at its base. Priming the pump to truly educate America. Prospective underwriters to support KFED annual budget after federal grant is exhausted: Valero Energy, H.E.B. Foods, Red McCombs Automotive, Kinetic Concepts and many more. Underwriters can immediately sponsor segments of educational program blocks and/or provide video productions for broadcasting. News updates, governmental messages, statewide educational scholarship and grant information. Weekend broadcast programming can consist of recordings of independent school district athletic events and/or theatre art plays and productions. Each station has autonomy for ADI of broadcast. Completion of this experiment can only work if a broadcast station and grocery provider can reach a mutual agreement to participate, and that would be OK. References Barkhuus, Louise (April, 2009). Television on the Internet: new practices, new viewers. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Proceedings of the 27th international conference extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems. CHI 2009: Life, love, death. pp. 2479-2488. United States: ACM New York, New York. Choi, Jinbong (2010). Seminar in Advertising & Public Relations. [Lecture]. Texas State University in San Marcos. Elston, Brian J. (October 23, 2008). Look, up in the air! It's 25 HDTV channels for free; if you can see CN Tower, indoor antenna should pull in most networks. The Toronto Star, Television pp x04. Gallup Brain (November 19, 1993). Survey of the future functions of television. Retrieved November 19, 2010 from Garcia, Guy (2010). [Podcast]. Latinos and the media. [Podcast]. Episode 921 18:50. NPR: Latino USA Podcast. Goldstein, M. L. (2009). Digital Television Transition: Broadcasters Transition Status, Low-Power Station Issues, and Information on Consumer Awareness of the DTV Transition. Goldsworthy, Simon & Morris, Trevor (2008). Spin, Public Relations, and the Shaping of the Modern Media. PR: A Persuasive Industry. From PR to Propaganda: The persuasive industry’s problem with definitions. Palgrave Macmillan. Greenblatt, Alan (February 16, 2007). Television’s Future: Will TV remain the dominant mass medium? CQ Researcher v17 n7 pp. 145-168. Hart, Jeffrey A. (2010). The Transition to Digital Television in the United States: The End Game. International Journal of Digital Television v1 n1. Indiana University. Hendrix, Jerry A. (1998). Public Relations Cases, 4th ed. Belmont, California: Wadsworth. Hinojosa, Maria (2010). Attracting Latino dollars. [Podcast]. Episode 921 18:50. NPR: Latino USA Podcast. Huffington, Arianna (2010). Third World America: How politicians are abandoning the middle class and betraying the American dream. Crown Publishing. Jost, Kenneth (June 20, 2008). Transition to Digital Television: Are broadcasters and viewers ready for the switch? CQ Researcher v18 n13 pp. 529-552. Kulig, Paula (March 15, 1997). The Globe and Mail. The Arts: Television p. C23. Locke, Gary (Secretary) (December 2009). Outside the Box: The Digital TV Converter Box Program. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Telecommunications and Information Administration and TV Converter Box Coupon Program. Magnaglobal On-Demand Quarterly (October 2010). Updated Internet Access, DVR, VOD Forecast: Introducing Over The Top Story Forecast. Media Math, NTC Publishing (2010). Finding CPM from CPP. Nielsen Three Screen Report (2010). Multi-Screen Insight: TV, Internet and Mobile Usage. 1st Quarter. United States: The Nielsen Company. Najera, Marcos (2010). VozMob: Turning day laborers into citizen journalists. [Podcast]. Episode 920 18:50. NPR: Latino USA Podcast. Pew Hispanic Research (2010). Phillips, Mary Alice Mayer (1972). CATV; A History of Community Antenna Television. Pink, Daniel (February 19, 2009). A Whole New Mind. United States: Penguin Group. Senuta, Pamela (November 19, 2010). KENS TV Channel 5, San Antonio, Texas. [Interview]. Research Director. Schmidt, Randy & Carnezale, Greg (November 19, 2010). KSAT-TV channel 12, San Antonio, Texas. [Interview]. General Sales Manager & Research Director. SRDS Media Solutions (2009). Market Profiles Reports: Designated Market Area, San Antonio, Texas compiled by Experian Marketing Solutions & The Nielsen Company. Stacks, Don W. (2002). Primer of Public Relations Research. The Guilford Press. Subervi-Velez, Federico A. (2008). The Mass Media and Latino Politics: Studies of U.S. Media Content, Campaign Strategies and Survey Research: 1984-2004. United States, New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis. Svensson, Peter (November 8, 2010). Cable Subscribers Flee, But is Internet To Blame? Tech Trends. Retrieved November 20, 2010 from Television Digest with Consumer Electronics (June 9, 1997). New antennas coming for digital TV v 37 i23 p13, 2p. Thomas, Ronald R. (2008). Television Reception in the 1950’s: A Coming of Age. The AWA Journal, On-line Edition, Antique Wireless Association, Inc. U.S. Census Bureau (July 15, 2010). Newsroom. Retrieved November 20, 2010 from Walker, David & Guzman, Elizabeth (October 14, 2010). WOAI TV Channel 4, San Antonio, Texas. [Interview]. General Sales Manager and Research Director. Warren, Ted S. (2009). Associated Press. Wright, Judy (November 19, 2010). Time-Warner cable San Antonio, Texas. [Interview]. General Sales Manager.

2. Road Back to the Frozen Four (69 minutes)

Road Back to the Frozen Four (69 minutes)

History [edit]Partridge and his academy The university was founded in 1819 at Norwich by military educator and former superintendent of West Point, Captain Alden B. Partridge. Captain Partridge believed in the "American System of Education," a traditional liberal arts curriculum with instruction in civil engineering and military science. After leaving West Point because of congressional disapproval of his system, he returned to his native state of Vermont to create the American Literary, Scientific and Military Academy. Captain Partridge, in founding his academy, rebelled against the reforms of Sylvanus Thayer to prevent the rise of what he saw as the greatest threat to the security of the young republic: a professional officer class. He believed that a well-trained militia was an urgent necessity and developed the American system around that idea. His academy became the inspiration for a number of military colleges throughout the nation, including both the Virginia Military Institute and The Citadel, and later the land grant colleges created through the Morrill Act of 1862.[4] Partridge's educational beliefs were considered radical at the time, and this led to his conflicting views with the federal government while he was the superintendent of West Point. Upon creation of his own school, he immediately incorporated classes of agriculture and modern languages in addition to the sciences, liberal arts, and various military subjects. Field exercises, for which Partridge borrowed cannon and muskets from the federal and state governments, supplemented classroom instruction and added an element of realism to the college’s program of well-rounded military education. Partridge founded six other military institutions during his quest to reform the fledgling United States military. They were the Virginia Literary, Scientific and Military Academy at Portsmouth, Virginia (1839–1846), Pennsylvania Literary, Scientific, and Military Academy at Bristol, Pennsylvania (1842–1845), Pennsylvania Military Institute at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (1845–1848), Wilmington Literary, Scientific and Military Academy at Wilmington, Delaware (1846–1848), the Scientific and Military Collegiate Institute at Reading, Pennsylvania (1850–1854), Gymnasium and Military Institute at Pembroke, New Hampshire (1850–1853) and the National Scientific and Military Academy at Brandywine Springs, Delaware (1853).[5] [edit]Fire and hardship: Norwich in the 19th century In 1825 the academy moved to Middletown, Connecticut, to provide better naval training to the school's growing corps of cadets. In 1829, the state of Connecticut declined to grant Captain Partridge a charter and he moved the school back to Norwich (the Middletown campus became Wesleyan University in 1831). Beginning in 1826, the college offered the first program of courses in civil engineering in the US. In 1834 Vermont granted a charter and recognized the institution as Norwich University. During the 1856 academic year, the first chapter of the Theta Chi Fraternity was founded by cadets Frederick Norton Freeman and Arthur Chase. With the beginning of the Civil War in 1861, Norwich cadets served as instructors of the state militias throughout the Northeast and the entire class of 1862 enlisted upon its graduation. Norwich turned out hundreds of officers and soldiers who served with the federal armies in the American Civil War, including four recipients of the Medal of Honor. One graduate led a corps, seven more headed divisions, 21 commanded brigades, 38 led regiments, and various alumni served in 131 different regimental organizations. In addition, these men were eyewitnesses to some of the war's most dramatic events, including the bloodiest day of the conflict at Antietam, the attack up Marye's Heights at Fredericksburg, and the repulse of Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg. Seven hundred and fifty Norwich men served in the Civil War, of whom sixty fought for the Confederacy.[6] Because of the university's participation in the struggle, the number of students dwindled to seven in the class of 1864 alone. The Confederate raid on St. Albans, Vermont precipitated fear that Newport, Vermont was an imminent target. The corps quickly boarded an express train for Newport, the same day, October 19, 1864, to the great relief of the inhabitants. After a catastrophic fire in 1866 which devastated the entire campus, the town of Northfield welcomed the struggling school. The Civil War, the fire, and the uncertainty regarding the continuation of the University seriously lowered the attendance, and the school opened in the fall of 1866 with only 19 students. The 1870s and 1880s saw many financially turbulent times for the institution and the renaming of the school to Lewis College in 1880. In 1881 the student body was reduced to only a dozen men. Later, by 1884, the Vermont Legislature had the name of the school changed back to Norwich. In 1898 the university was designated as the Military College of the State of Vermont. [edit]War and expansion: Norwich in the 20th century As part of the Vermont National Guard, the school's Corps of Cadets was mobilized as a squadron of cavalry in the First Vermont Regiment to assist in General John J. Pershing's Mexican Expedition. This greatly disrupted the academic year and in 1916 the War Department designated Norwich as the first site for a Senior ROTC cavalry unit; also in 1916, the first African-American, Harold "Doc" Martin (NU 1920), matriculated. Classes graduated early for both the First and Second World Wars and many Norwich-made officers saw service in all theaters of both conflicts. Professional education offered at Norwich also changed and adapted with the advance of technology. Military flight training began in 1939 and from 1946 to 1947, horse cavalry was completely phased out in favor of armored cavalry. Graduates returning from European and Pacific fields of battle found a university very different from the one they had left behind. From the late 1940s to the 1960s, Norwich was greatly expanded and added a number of new opportunities. In 1947, the Army Department created a new program uniquely suited to Vermont's harsh climate: a mountain and cold weather warfare unit. Air Force and Navy ROTC programs were established in 1972 and 1984 respectively. During the 1974 school year, the university admitted women into the Corps of Cadets, two years before the federal service academies. Although unpopular at the time, Norwich University began a social trend that would move the country closer in gender equality. The 1972 merger and 1993 integration with Vermont College added two groups to "the Hill," women and civilian students. Norwich later sold its Vermont College campus and non-traditional degree programs to the Union Institute and University in 2001.[7] Vermont College's arts programs were spun off as the once again independent Vermont College of Fine Arts in 2008. [edit]Hazing In the nineteenth century, hazing of undergraduates by upper classmen was normal in all military schools and many non-military ones as well. Hazing diminished in the early 20th century. By the late 20th century, it became not only counter to university rules but illegal as well. Nevertheless, there have been several instances of hazing in 1990, 1995.[8] [edit]Campus [edit]Academic buildings [edit]Ainsworth Hall In 1910 Ainsworth Hall was constructed for the United States Weather Bureau as its central Vermont station. Later returned to the university in 1948, it served as the Administrative Headquarters of the campus. By 1955, growth of the University forced the relocation of the Administration back up the hill to Dewey Hall. When also in 1955 construction began on Webb Hall to the immediate west of the building, the infirmary moved into the now empty structure. Due to expansion of the university in the 1960s and 1970s the building was converted into the home of the Division of Social Sciences. The building is named for Mrs. Laura Ainsworth, widow of Captain James E. Ainsworth (NU 1853), who in 1915 worked to bring an infirmary to campus. [edit]Chaplin Hall Chaplin Hall, originally Carnegie Hall, was built in 1907. The School of Architecture & Art is located there. Paid for by Andrew Carnegie, the building served as the university's library until 1993 with the construction of Kreitzberg Library. When the library was renovated in 1952, from the contributions of trustee Henry P. Chaplin, it was rededicated as the Henry Prescott Chaplin Memorial Library. Until 1941 and the addition of Partridge Hall to the growing campus, Chaplin Hall also provided the classrooms and offices for the Department of Electrical Engineering. [edit]Communications Building This building, on the site of the first building in Center Northfield, contains the offices and classrooms of the Communications Department. The offices for the Guidon and the studios for both the university's radio station WNUB-FM are also located in this building. The building was purchased by the university in 1973 and restored in 1988. [edit]Dewey Hall Named for Admiral of the Navy George Dewey (NU 1852-1854), and completed in 1902, Dewey Hall is one of the oldest buildings in the Northfield campus. It was originally two stories high with the lower floor occupied by offices of the university's administration, the library and museum. Office space for trustees and faculty, a chapel with a seating of five hundred and the United States Weather Bureau were located on the second floor. With the departure of the Weather Bureau in 1909 and the completion of the then new Carnegie Library in 1907 the Hall was primarily used by the Military Department. In October 1925 a fire gutted the building which led to its reconstruction as a three story structure. Dewey Hall currently houses the Division of Business & Management and a computer lab. [edit]Hollis House Hollis House is today the location of a number of classrooms and offices of the Division of Humanities. Built in 1852, the building was until 1909 the house of a number of prominent residents of Northfield. When sold that year to the university, it became part of the US Weather Bureau's station collocated on campus. The building was later named for David B. "Dixie" Hollis (NU 1922) who upon his death in 1993 gave what was then the largest donation in the university's history: $7 million. [edit]Engineering, Math and Science Complex The Engineering, Math and Science Complex houses the David Crawford School of Engineering as well as the departments of Geology, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Mathematics and Sports Medicine. Currently under construction is an addition of Nursing in the bottom floor of the building. The complex is composed of six buildings: Juckett, Partridge and Tompkins Halls; the Science Building, Bartolleto Hall and the Cabot Annex. The complex was completed in 1997 and replaced a previous set of 1940s- and 1950s-era facilities. The Engineering, Math and Science Complex also contains the university's Computer Services office and the majority of the campus' independent computer labs. [edit]Kreitzberg Library Kreitzberg Library is named in recognition of Barbara and Chairman of the Board of Trustees Fred Kreitzberg (NU 1957).[9] The library has a catalogue of more than 240,000 books, about 45,000 electronic journals, and a collection of federal government publications. The Norwich University Archives and Special Collections houses rare books and unique source materials relating to military history, the history of Vermont, and the history of the university. The 58,000-square-foot (5,400 m2) library was designed by Perry, Dean, Rogers & Partners and was completed in 1993 at a cost of $8.1 million. Kreitzberg Library [edit]Webb Hall Webb Hall was completed in 1960 and originally housed the English, Modern Languages, Social Sciences, Business Administration and the Psychology and Education departments. Currently, the Division of Humanities, Nursing Department and Education program are located in this building. Twenty one classrooms, three seminar rooms and a computer lab are available. Dole Auditorium, which can seat over four hundred people, is also located in Webb Hall. The building is named after J. Watson Webb, a Norwich trustee and world class polo player. The auditorium honors Charles Dole (NU 1869), who served in his career at the university as an instructor in Mathematics and Latin, a professor of history and rhetoric, the commandant of cadets and acting president of the university from 1895 to 1896. [edit]Residence halls and Cadet barracks Hawkins Hall — Named for General Hawkins, a colonel in the Civil War and later New York State Congressman. Built in 1940 and renovated in 1994 and again in 2008 Dodge Hall — Named for Major General Grenville M. Dodge, a leader in the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad and US Congressman. It is the only dorm to house both Corps of Cadets and Traditional students. Originally named Cabot Hall, it was built in 1937 and renovated in 1998 Patterson Hall — Named for a 1909 graduate in Civil Engineering and a trustee. Built in 1958. Goodyear Hall — Named for Major General A. Conger Goodyear, a trustee and founder of the Museum of Modern Art. Built in 1955 and renovated in 1999 Wilson Hall — Named for a Judge and Governor of Vermont, Stanley Calef Wilson. Alumni Hall — First housing-only hall at the Northfield campus, named for the significant alumnus contributions that allowed for its construction. Built in 1905 and renovated in 2005 Ransom Hall — Named after Colonel Truman B. Ransom, the second president of the University who was killed leading the assault on Chapultepec during the Mexican-American War. Built in 1957 Gerard Hall — Named after industrialist and philanthropist Jacques A. Gerard who became a trustee in 1959. Built in 1962, and renovated in 2010. Crawford Hall — Named after David C. Crawford (1952) and after whom the School of Engineering is also named, it is the first residence hall to not be on the Upper Parade Ground and is reserved for traditional students. Built in 1988 South Hall — The newest residence hall, it is the second dorm to be located off of the Upper Parade Ground and is reserved for traditional students. Built in 2009, it opened for the 2009/2010 School Year [edit]Athletic buildings Andrews Hall Andrews Hall, built in 1980, houses the Department of Athletics. In addition, it has basketball and racquetball courts and the equipment and athletic training rooms for the university's varsity and intramural teams. The Athletic Hall of Fame is also located in Andrews Hall. The facility honors trustee Paul R. Andrews (NU 1930). Kreitzberg Arena Kreitzberg Arena is home to the men’s and women’s varsity ice hockey teams, as well as the school’s club team. Kreitzberg thumb Plumley Armory The armory, built in 1928, is named to honor a notable 1896 graduate of the university, Charles A. Plumley. Plumley served as the president of the university from 1930 to 1934 when he was elected to Congress as Vermont's sole representative from 1934 to 1951. The main floor of the building provides seating space for 4,000 in an area as large as three basketball courts. There is an elevated running track as well as locker rooms, training rooms, and Navy ROTC offices in the basement. Connected to the armory is Goodyear Pool. Built in 1962, the pool is a 25 x 14 yard 5 lane facility that is open to all university members. Plumley Armory Sabine Field Dedicated in 1921, Sabine Field is currently home to the university football and cross country teams. Sabine field is slated for a complete renovation. The renovation will include the installation of all-weather turf, stadium lighting, new bleachers, and a state-of-the-art press box. It is designed so that lacrosse, soccer, and rugby will also be able to use the field. Sabine Field Arial Overview Main article: Sabine Field Shapiro Field House Shapiro Field House, built in 1987 and named for trustee Jacob Shapiro (NU 1936), houses a multipurpose arena that has a 200-meter indoor running track, four tennis courts, and a climbing wall. It is also used for morning PT (Physical Training), athletic practices, Commencement, concerts and other university functions. [edit]Other buildings The Harmon Memorial The Harmon Memorial is a tribute to Major General Ernest Harmon, who attended Norwich University from 1912 to 1913 and was later president from 1950 to 1968. Recorded on the memorial, by year of death, are the names of alumni, faculty, staff, and friends of Norwich University that have made a "significant contribution" to the university. Harmon Hall & Wise Campus Center Harmon Hall opened in 1955 and later enlarged in 1958. Since then, it has served as the focal point for student life and activities. The campus mess hall, bookstore, post office, and The Mill (a snack bar open to upperclassmen and civilian freshmen) are located on the lower two floors. The Foreign Student Office, Student Activities, Yearbook Office, Music Program offices, a game room, and a lounge were located on the top floor. This floor originally housed the departments of English, History, and Modern Languages until they were moved to Webb Hall in 1960. Harmon Hall was renovated in 2007. The addition onto Harmon Hall is named the Wise Campus Center. Wcc Jackman Hall Norwich University moved to Northfield from Norwich, Vermont, in 1866 when the South Barracks at the older location were destroyed by fire. Old Jackman Hall was the first building to be constructed at the new central Vermont site. The building was erected in 1868, and named Jackman Hall in 1907 to honor Brigadier General Alonzo Jackman (NU 1836) a faculty member, creator of the trans-Atlantic telegraph cable system and commander of the Vermont Brigade during the Civil War. From its construction till 1905 the building served as housing for cadets. In the mid-1950s Jackman Hall was extensively remodeled and modernized, however, it became apparent that the almost century-old barracks were too costly to maintain. It was decided that rather than pay for near continual upkeep to build a new hall on the same site. As many newer barracks had been built since its original construction it was decided that the new Jackman Hall would serve as the primary administration building. Currently the Army and Air Force ROTC departments are housed in Jackman, as well. White Chapel Constructed by a gift from Eugene L. White (NU 1914), a trustee, the chapel was completed in 1941. Originally designed as a multi-purpose building, then White Hall has served as a mess hall with a dining room, lunch room, kitchen, a college store and a recreational room. White Hall was converted to the university's first single-purpose chapel after Harmon Hall was opened in 1955. There are two bronze plaques on the walls that honor the Norwich war dead. Weekly services include Catholic Mass on Wednesday and Sunday, non-denominational service on Sunday, and Islamic prayer on Friday. Sullivan Museum and History Center One of the newer buildings on the campus, the Sullivan Museum was opened January 22, 2007. The building is named after General Gordon R. Sullivan (ret.), Norwich class of 1959 and former U.S. Army Chief of Staff. The Sullivan Museum houses state of the art conservation, storage, and display facilities for the wide variety of Norwich University artifacts and memorabilia. Items currently displayed cover a wide spectrum of Norwich history, including uniforms worn by Alden Partridge and Alonzo Jackman to pieces from more recent history. Sullivan Museum [edit]Students and organization The university has approximately a total of 3,400 students, 2,100 undergraduate students/ 1300 graduate students, 112 full-time faculty (approximately 80% hold a doctorate), and a fluctuating number of adjunct professors. The student/faculty ratio is 14:1 and a male/female ratio is 7:1. The freshman retention rate is 80%. The student body comprises students from over 45 different states and 20 countries. As of 2011, 72.9 percent of full-time undergraduates receive some kind of need-based financial aid and the average need-based scholarship or grant award is $18,150. The university offers a number of student services including nonremedial tutoring, placement service, health service, and health insurance. Norwich University also offers campus safety and security services like 24-hour foot and vehicle patrols, 24-hour emergency telephones, and lighted pathways/sidewalks. 42% of students have cars on campus and 83% of students live on campus. Alcohol is not permitted for students of legal age at Norwich University with exception of Partridge’s Pub. More than 90% are involved in activities outside the classroom. Norwich University has two very different on-campus resident programs: the Corps of Cadets and the traditional student body. [edit]Corps of Cadets Cadet officers and non-commissioned officers command the Corps of Cadets. As leaders, they are responsible for the day-to-day administration, operation, training and discipline of the Corps. Norwich is one of several Senior Military Colleges in the country whose cadets are entrusted with that authority. The Corps is structured as a regiment commanded by a Cadet Colonel (C/COL) with five battalions each commanded by a Cadet Lieutenant Colonel (C/LTC). 1st, 2nd, and Provisional Battalions are composed of Companies of upperclassmen commanded by a Cadet Captain with two platoons per Company. 3rd and 4th Battalion are the freshman training battalions and are composed of 3 Companies of 3 platoons each. This structure was put in place for the 2009-2010 school year, replacing the more traditional original company system. Prior to the 2009-2010 school year companies consisted of one upperclassmen platoon and one freshmen platoon. Each platoon consisted of three squads each led by a cadet Staff Sergeant. Interaction between the upper-class cadets and freshmen cadets was common, leading to[clarification needed] original companies. An Original Company is the company that a cadet belongs to as a freshmen. Upper-class cadets who were of an original company their freshman year would guide and mentor the incoming freshman cadets who were in that company. With in the original companies was an unofficial rank structure, which ensured which handled disputes within the companies, as well as enforcing each companies' values. These shadow chains of command ran afoul with the administration of the school,[citation needed] in part leading to the demise of the original company system. The companies in the original company system included, Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Kilo, Band, Drill Company, Cavalry Troop and Artillery. The companies Alpha through Kilo were known as line companies, and were part of Battalions 1,2 and 3. Band, Drill Company, Calvary Troop and Artillery were called provisional companies and placed in Provisional Battalion.[citation needed] New Corps structure: 1st Battalion 2nd Battalion 3rd Battalion 4th Battalion Provisional Battalion Alpha Delta Cadet Training Company 10-1 (CTC 1) Cadet Training Company 10-4 (CTC 4) Regimental Band [10] Bravo Echo Cadet Training Company 10-2 (CTC 2) Cadet Training Company 10-5 (CTC 5) Drill[11] Charlie Foxtrot Cadet Training Company 10-3 (CTC 3) Cadet Training Company 10-6 (CTC 6) Cavalry Troop[12] Artillery[13] Formation march Norwich University Corps of Cadets rank insignia follows West Point with the use of chevrons to show all cadet ranks in lieu of chevrons, disks & lozenges. As of the 2010 academic year, the rank structure has changed. Juniors and seniors are no longer permitted the rank of Sergeant, but rather default to the rank of Private if they hold no responsibilities in the Corps of Cadets. Likewise, sophomores no longer default to the rank of Corporal unless they hold some sort of responsibility. Ranks are as follows: Freshman: Recruit, Private Sophomore: Private, Corporal Junior: Private, Staff Sergeant, Sergeant First Class, Master Sergeant, First Sergeant, Sergeant Major, Command Sergeant Major Senior: Private, Command Sergeant Major, 2nd Lieutenant, 1st Lieutenant, Captain, Major, Lieutenant Colonel, Colonel Special Units The college has several ROTC units that are federally supervised. The Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (AROTC) detachment contains the Norwich University Rangers,[14] and the Mountain Cold Weather Company. The Rangers are AROTC-specific while the Mountain Cold Weather Company[15] is open to all Corps Cadets. The AFROTC detachment sponsors the Air Force Special Operations Unit. The NROTC detachment sponsors a chapter of the Semper Fidelis Society. [edit]Academics Norwich has 29 majors across six academic divisions with the most popular major being Criminal Justice.[citation needed] [edit]Graduate Program The School of Graduate and Continuing Studies oversees the university's graduate programs. The majority of the graduate programs are conducted on a distance learning platform. The university offers accredited and highly recognized programs in a range of fields including diplomacy, military history, business administration, civil engineering, justice administration, public administration, business continuity, information assurance, nursing, and organizational leadership, plus a certificate in teaching and learning.[16] The School of Graduate Studies became The School of Graduate and Continuing Studies on June 1, 2010.[17] Norwich offers online graduate programs, including a 5-year Master of Architecture program, and, since 2001, a National Security Agency-sponsored Centers of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Education.[18] Norwich offers master's degrees in disciplines including diplomacy, military history, business administration, civil engineering, justice administration, public administration, business continuity, information assurance, nursing, and organizational leadership, plus a certificate in teaching and learning.[citation needed] [edit]Athletics Norwich cadet logo Norwich offers 18 varsity sports, 3 club sports and intramurals. The Cadets compete at the NCAA Division III level and are affiliated in one of four conferences, mainly the Great Northeast Athletic Conference (GNAC). There are 18 varsity sports and 3 club sports at Norwich University. The Cadets participate in baseball, basketball, cross country, football, rugby, soccer, lacrosse, and more. In recent years, Norwich teams have been regularly found in the national rankings, won conference titles, and won four national championships in ice hockey. Men's ice hockey is nationally ranked and celebrated its 100th season in 2009-10. The program has won ECAC East hockey championships in the regular season every year from 1998–2008.[19] Won the NCAA Division III title in 2000, 2003 and most recently won the 2010 NCAA Division III title, defeating St. Norbert College 2-1 in double overtime.[20] Coach Mike McShane, who led Norwich University to three NCAA Division III Men’s Ice Hockey National Championships, has been named Men’s Division III Ice Hockey Coach of the Year four times, tying Middlebury’s Coach Bill Beaney for the most such awards.[citation needed] Women's ice hockey is nationally ranked and skated their way to their first Frozen Four bid in 2010 in the NCAA Division III Championship Game. In 2011 they won the programs first NCAA Division III National Title with a win over RIT. Women’s ice hockey coach Mark Bolding became just the third coach in Division III history to win the American Hockey Coaches Association (AHCA) D-III Coach of the Year award in consecutive years (2010-2011).[citation needed] Men's rugby began competition in 1970. The team competes in the Division II of the New England Rugby Football Union (NERFU). After competing as a club team since they began intercollegiate play, in 2008 the program had officially gained varsity status. Women's lacrosse program gained varsity status in 2008. In 2010 they had their first appearance in the NCAA tournament field. Men's basketball returned to the NCAA Tournament in 2006 Woman's basketball in 2010 they advanced to the GNAC championship game and the ECAC Division III New England Women’s Basketball Tournament. Men's and Women's soccer Rifle team won the national intercollegiate rifle championship in 1916 [21] and 1920.[22] [edit]Notable alumni [edit]Military 138 graduates of Norwich University have served as general officers in the U.S. armed forces: 102 Army generals, 11 Air Force generals, 9 Marine Corps generals, and 16 Navy admirals. 26 graduates served as generals in foreign armies: 9 Royal Thai Army general, 1 Royal Thai Air Force general, and 16 Republic of China Army generals.[citation needed] Among the notable military graduates and former students of Norwich are: Rear Admiral Hiram Paulding (class of 1822) — Commander of the Navy's Home Squadron, 1856–1858; Commandant of the New York Navy Yard, 1861-1865. After the American Civil War he served as Governor of Philadelphia Naval Asylum and Post-Admiral at Boston. Commander James H. Ward (1823) — First Commandant of the United States Naval Academy; first Union Naval officer killed in action during the American Civil War. Major General William Huntington Russell (1828) — Founder of New Haven Collegiate and Commercial Institute (now Russell Military Academy); partner in Russell, Majors and Waddell, Western freight and stagecoach company; early organizer of the Republican Party; commander of Connecticut state militia during the American Civil War; founder of the Skull and Bones society at Yale University. Captain George Musalas "Colvos" Colvocoresses (1831) — Commanded USS Saratoga during the American Civil War. Major General Horatio G. Wright (attended 1834-1836) — Commander of the VI Corps of the Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War; Chief of Engineers for the Army; Chief Engineer for the completion of the Washington Monument. Brigadier General Frederick W. Lander (1852) — Surveyor of railroad routes and wagon trails in the Far West; commanded a division in the Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War; died of wounds and exposure in 1862. Admiral of the Navy George Dewey (attended 1852-1854) — Commanded the Navy's Asiatic Squadron at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War. Brigadier General Edward Bancroft Williston (1856) — Received the Medal of Honor for heroism at Trevilian Station during the Civil War; the first initiated member of Theta Chi. Brigadier General Edmund Rice (1859) — Received the Medal of Honor for repelling Pickett's Charge at the Battle of Gettysburg. Brigadier General Robert H. Milroy (1843) - Active in several campaigns in Western Virginia and the Shenandoah Valley, in command or present at the Union reverses of the Battle of McDowell, Battle of Cross Keys, and Battle of Second Winchester. Colonel Thomas O. Seaver (1859) — Commanded the 3rd Vermont Infantry during the American Civil War; received the Medal of Honor for his heroism at Spotsylvania. later a judge. Rear Admiral George A. Converse (1863) — Notable naval engineer; Chief of the Bureaus of Equipment, Ordnance, and Navigation. 1st Lieutenant James Porter (attended 1863-1864) — Officer in the 7th Cavalry from 1869 to 1876; killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Brigadier General Hiram Iddings Bearss (attended 1894-1895) — Received the Medal of Honor for heroism during the Philippine-American War and the Distinguished Service Cross for valor in World War I. Lieutenant General Edward H. Brooks (1916) — Commander, VI Armored Corps, 1944–1945, during World War II; commanding general, U.S. Army in the Caribbean, 1947; commanding general, Second Army, 1951. Major General Leonard F. Wing, Sr. (1893–1945) (Attended between 1910 and 1914) — Commander, 43rd Infantry Division during World War II, Norwich Board of Trustees, 1939–1946, honorary degrees, 1938, 1946. Brigadier General Leonard F. Wing, Jr. (1923–2005) (1945) — World War II veteran, Vermont Bar Association President, commander of the 86th Armored Brigade Major General Ernest N. Harmon (attended 1914) — Commander, 1st Armored Division, 2nd Armored Division, and XXII Corps during World War II; commander, VI Corps, U.S. Constabulary in German, 1946. Twenty-second President of the University, 1950. General Isaac D. White (1922) — Commander, 2nd Armored Division during World War II; commander, X Corps during the Korean War; commanding general, United States Army Pacific Command, 1957-1961. Major General Briard Poland Johnson (1927) — Commander, 67th Armored Regiment, during World War II; commander, U.S. Military Assistance Group to Thailand, 1959–1962; Chief of Staff for the Continental Army Command, Fort Monroe, Virginia, 1963.[23] Captain James M. Burt (1939) — Received the Medal of Honor for heroism at Aachen during World War II; alumnus of Theta Chi. Brigadier General Charles E. Canedy (1953) — Organized one of the first air cavalry troops in the Army; responsible for the adoption of the UH-1 Iroquois and the AH-1 Cobra helicopters; named to the Army Aviation Hall of Fame in 1995.[24] General Gordon R. Sullivan (1959) — Army Chief of Staff, 1991-1995. Brigadier General Steven J Spano (1983) — Director of Communications, Headquarters Air Combat Command, Langley Air Force Base [edit]Political Thomas Green Clemson — US Ambassador to Belgium and founder of Clemson University[25] Gideon Welles — Secretary of the Navy from 1861 to 1869 under Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. Charles D. Drake 1825 United States Senator from Missouri. Edward Stanly 1829 — Whig politician and orator who served the State of North Carolina in the Congress from 1837 to 1843 and again from 1847 to 1853. He later ran unsuccessfully for Governorship of California as a Republican in 1857. Thomas Bragg 1830 — Governor of North Carolina from 1855 to 1859, US Senator for North Carolina 1859 to 1861 and 2nd Attorney General of the Confederate States. Older brother of Confederate General Braxton Bragg. Horatio Seymour 1831 — Governor of New York from 1852 to 1854 and again from 1862 to 1864 was also the Democratic Nominee for President in 1868 Alvan E. Bovay 1841 — Co-founder of Republican Party and Ripon College [26][27] William Little Lee 1842 — Lawyer and privy counselor to Kamehameha III of Hawaii, later served as the Kingdom's chief justice from 1848 to his death in 1857.[28] William Pitt Kellogg 1848 — Was appointed Chief Justice of the Nebraska Territory in 1861 by President Lincoln but soon after resigned to fight in the Civil War. Elected to the Senate from Louisiana in 1868, he became the governor of that state in 1873 and left office with the end of Reconstruction 1877. Returning to the Senate in 1877, he remained there until 1883 when he sought a term (1883–1885) in the House instead. Was one of the few carpetbagger politicians to remain in power in the South post-Reconstruction. James KP Chamberlin (NU 1856-1858) - Appointed to the Nebraska State Supreme Court in 1887[29] Burleigh F. Spalding 1877 — Served as a United States Representative from North Dakota from 1899 to 1901 and again from 1903 to 1905 and a member of the North Dakota Supreme Court from 1908 to 1915. Colonel Ernest Willard Gibson 1894 — US Senator from Vermont. Charles A. Plumley 1896 - Served in United States Congress from January 16, 1934, to January 3, 1951 as U.S. Representative from Vermont. Tarak Nath Das, 1908- Indian freedom fighter, co-founder of the Ghadar Party, expelled for his anti-British political activities Colonel Ernest W. Gibson, Jr. 1923 — U.S. Senator from 1940 to 1941, left to serve in the US Army in the Pacific Theater. Later the Governor of Vermont from 1946 to 1950, alumnus of Theta Chi Dennis B. Underwood 1966 — Commissioner of the United States Bureau of Reclamation 1989-1993[30] Colin Kenny 1966 — Adviser to Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau from 1970 to 1979, appointed to the Canadian Senate by Trudeau in 1984 for the province of Ontario. Jason R. Holsman 2003 - Representative of the 43rd District of Missouri in General Assembly. [edit]Business Harry Bates Thayer — President from 1919 to 1925 and Chairman of the Board of AT&T until 1928 Paul R Andrews 1930 — CEO of Prentice Hall Publishing Company from 1971 to 1975 [31] Brigadier General Robert F. McDermott (1937–1939) — Former CEO of United Services Automobile Association (USAA). Appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to be the first dean of the United States Air Force Academy. Called the "Father of the Modern Military Education" and the "Father of the Air Force Academy." [32] Pierson Mapes 1959 — President of NBC from 1982 to 1994.[33] [edit]Engineering and architecture Edwin Ferry Johnson 1825 — Surveyor of the Champlain Canal and chief engineer of the New York & Erie, Hartford & New Haven and Northern Pacific railroads. Early proponent of a transcontinental railroad and later mayor of Middletown, CT.[34] Major General Grenville Dodge 1850 — Civil War General, US Congressman and later Chief Engineer of the Union Pacific Railroad. Dodge City, KS is named in his honor. Edward Dean Adams 1864 — Engineer and builder of the Niagara Falls Power facility.[35][36] Samuel T. Wellman 1866 — American steel industry pioneer, industrialist, and prolific inventor. Wellman was also president of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers from 1901 to 1902. William Rutherford Mead — Joined with Charles Follen McKim and Stanford White to form McKim, Mead, and White in 1879. Associated with the City Beautiful and Beaux Arts movements, McKim, Mead, and White designed the Rhode Island State House, the Morningside Heights campus of Columbia University, the New York Pennsylvania Station and the West Wing of the White House.[37] Richard E. Hayden 1968 [38] — acoustics researcher, won the Wright Brothers Medal in 1973 for a research paper on noise reduction for STOL aircraft [edit]Athletes Arlie Pond 1888-1890 - Major league pitcher for the Baltimore Orioles from 1895–1898 Frank Liebel - 1941 - Professional Football Player 1942-1948 with the New York Giants and Chicago Bears.[39] Thomas W.W. Atwood 1953 - 1952 National Intercollegiate Rifle Champion. 1959 National Service Rifle Champion. 1961 International Military Sports Council (CISM) Rifle Champion. Inducted into the US Army Marksmanship Unit Service Rifle Hall of Fame in 1994.[40] Allen Doyle 1971 — Golfer on the Champions Tour. 2005 & 2006 US Senior Open Champion. 1999 Senior PGA Champion.[41] Chris Bucknam 1978 - Head men’s track and field and cross country coach at the University of Arkansas. He was Northern Iowa’s head men’s track and field coach from 1984–2008 and the women’s head coach from 1997-2008. Bucknam has guided his teams to 35 league titles, two top-10 and six top-20 finishes at NCAA Indoor and Outdoor Championships. A 33-time conference coach of the year, Bucknam produced three national champions and an outstanding 34 All-Americans, who earned a total of 85 All-America awards.[42] Frank Simonetti 1983 - Professional American ice hockey player with the Boston Bruins from 1984-1988.[43] Emily Caruso 2000 — 2002, 2005, 2006, & 2007 National Air Rifle Champion. Member of the 2004 & 2008 Olympic Rifle Teams.[44][45][46] Mike Thomas Brown 2000 - Professional Mixed Martial Artist and current WEC Featherweight Champion with his victory over Urijah Faber in November 2008.[47] Keith Aucoin 2001 — Professional American ice hockey player who has played with the Carolina Hurricanes and Washington Capitals.[48] Kurtis McLean 2005 - Professional Canadian ice hockey player [49] Pierre Garcon 2005 - Wide Receiver for the Indianapolis Colts[50][51][52] [edit]Other notable alumni Frederick Townsend Ward — American soldier of fortune famous for his military victories for Imperial China during the Taiping Rebellion. Arthur Chase 1856 — Co-founder of Theta Chi Fraternity. Bill W 1917 — co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous. Was recognized by Time Magazine as being in the top 20 persons of the Time 100: Heroes and Icons in the 20th century.[53] Harold Douglas Martin 1920 — African-American educator and soldier who directed the Ground School at Tuskegee Air Field from 1943 till his death in 1945.[54] Lieutenant Colonel Carlo D'Este 1958 - military historian and author of the biographies Patton: A Genius for War and Eisenhower: A Soldier's Life, among other books on World War II. . Marjorie Welish — Poet, author, artist and art critic. Major Michael Mori 1991 — Marine Corps officer and lawyer of Guantanamo Bay detainee David Matthew Hicks, aka Abu Muslim al-Austraili. Received in 2005 the American Civil Liberties Union's Roger N. Baldwin Medal of Liberty [edit]References ^ "Norwich University". U.S. News and World Report. ^ Corps of Cadets ^ Traditional Students ^ Reynolds, Terry. "The Education of Engineers in America Before the Morrill Act of 1862." History of Education Quarterly, Vol 32, No 4, Winter 1992. ^ Partridge ^ By the Blood of the Alumni: Norwich University… Robert G. Poirier: Books ^ Nat Frothingham, "Vermont College and Union: One Plus One Equals Three," The Montpelier Bridge, May 2001. ^ Free Press Staff Report (September 16, 2008). Norwich student arrested in assault. Burlington Free Press. ^ Kreitzberg Library ^ Regimental Band Company ^ Drill Team ^ Cavalry Troop ^ Norwich Independent Battery ^ [1] ^ [2] ^ Norwich University School of Graduate Studies ^ Name Change ^ Centers of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Education ^ Cadets favored in ECAC East. Burlington Free Press. November 7, 2008. ^ "Norwich, Amherst grab Division III hockey titles". Elmira Star-Gazette. 20 March 2010. ^ The Chicago Daily News Almanac and Year-book for 1917, Volume 33. Retrieved 2010-04-12. ^ "United States Sporting Champions for 1920". The Christian Science Monitor: p. 10. Jan 1, 1921. Retrieved 2010-05-14. ^ Briard Poland Johnson, Major General, United States Army ^ Canedy ^ [3] ^ Founders of Ripon College ^ The life of Alvan E. Bovay, founder of the Republican Party in Ripon, Wis., March 20, 1854. (Open Library) ^ [4][5] ^ [6] ^ George Bush: Nomination of Dennis B. Underwood To Be Commissioner of Reclamation at the Department of the Interior ^ "Paul R. Andrews, 77; Headed Prentice-Hall". The New York Times. September 25, 1983. Retrieved May 20, 2010. ^ Biographies : Brigadier General Robert F. Mcdermott ^ [7] ^ [8] ^ [9] ^ [10] ^ [11] ^ ^ ^ United States Army Marksmanship Unit 1956-2006. Turner Publishing Company. ISBN 1-59652-056-6. ^ - Allen Doyle's Official Profile ^ Head Coach Chris Bucknam - University of Arkansas Athletics ^ Legends of Hockey - NHL Player Search - Player - Frank Simonetti ^ USA Shooting - Athlete ^ Norwich University ^ 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics | Emily Caruso Profile & Bio, Photos & Videos | NBC Olympics ^ Gary E. Frank (2008-12-05). "Mixed martial arts champion Mike Brown found his path at Norwich". Norwich University Office of Communications. Retrieved 2009-03-05. ^ ^ New York Islanders - Team: Kurtis McLean Official Player Page ^ [12] ^ [13] ^ [14] ^ Time Magazine Time 100:The most important people of the century, Retrieved December 31, 2007. ^ [15] [edit]External links Military of the United States portal Norwich University website The Norwich University Guidon Norwich University School of Graduate and Continuing Studies Norwich University official online store Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Norwich University

3. Fine Art Editions Gallery & Press Introduction

Fine Art Editions Gallery & Press Introduction

ABOUT Fine Art Editions Gallery and Press is located in the heart of historic Georgetown, Kentucky at 146 East Main Street. We are located just 3 miles north of the Kentucky Horse Park. Fine Art Editions is a complete publishing and printmaking house, art gallery, and custom frame shop. This is the studio of artist John Stephen Hockensmith. Hockensmith is known around the world as an equine photographer, for his artistic skill as a printmaker, an author and businessman. Our commissioned artwork is printed on one of three substrates-500 gram Somerset watercolor paper, art canvas or luster paper--at the patron's choice or the artist's recommendation. These watercolors, canvases or paper editions are beautifully glazed with varnish to create a high luster with deep, rich hues and tones, and most artwork can be sized to specifications. However, our signed and numbered limited editions honor the tradition of availability in one size only. Our commissioned editions are created using an Epson 9800 or 10000 wide-body printer. We use Epson archival pigments or Epson K3 dyes in our printmaking, thus meeting museum standards. The watercolor museum prints have a hand-torn, deckled edge on all four sides, while our canvases have a precision black-edge gallery wrap. Either the canvas or watercolor paper can be framed in a museum-type floating mount for stunning presentation. Our luster prints are created with the same pigmented inks on a luminous paper. These paper prints are pristine and are generally framed with matting under glass.

4. Caligula's Horse - EPK (2016)

Caligula's Horse - EPK (2016)

Named after the prized possession of Rome’s infamous despot, CALIGULA’S HORSE is a progressive alternative rock band from Brisbane, Australia. Channeling the raw honesty of rock and the skill of progressive metal into a seamless voice at once energetic, grand and forthright, CALIGULA’S HORSE offers devotees of all strains of powerful and progressive music something unique. Formed by Sam Vallen and Jim Grey in early 2011, CALIGULA’S HORSE released their debut album “Moments from Ephemeral City” in April of the same year. "Moments" is a colourful and dynamic foray into modern progressive music, at once vital, eclectic, and memorable. It was followed in 2013 by "The Tide, the Thief & River's End", a dark, powerful narrative concept album about isolation, exodus, and the human spirit overcoming insurmountable odds. It received international acclaim in the progressive music sphere, lauded by rock and metal fans alike. The release of “River’s End” saw the group undertake an intense touring regime, including dates with the likes of OPETH, MASTODON, TESSERACT, THE DILLINGER ESCAPE PLAN, PROTEST THE HERO, THE OCEAN, FIREWIND, DEAD LETTER CIRCUS, TWELVE FOOT NINJA, NE OBLIVISCARIS, and hundreds more. But for CALIGULA'S HORSE this is only the beginning. After joining the roster of THE AGENCY GROUP in North America, AMF Publishing in the UK, and signing with the prestigious German record label INSIDE OUT, the band's sights are firmly set on the rest of the world. 2015 will see CALIGULA'S HORSE release their third record "Bloom", their most vivid, vibrant, and emotional work to date, melding the group's penchant for dramatic colour with the high-energy musical drive the band has become known for across the world. “'Bloom' is very special to all of us - it's an album full of colour and life, vibrancy and energy, but one that breathes in and out with a natural ebb and flow,” says lead vocalist Jim Grey. “It's exactly what we hoped to achieve with Caligula's Horse. To us, this album has a life of its own.” It is the perfect mission statement for an act blurring the line between power and reflection; a musical assertion with depth enough for the most dedicated of prog fans, and with fire enough to bring audiences in venues across the world to fury and their voices to unison.